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?Personalized facts walkthrough
Customized facts
Lengthen Facter by composing your private personalized facts to deliver intel to Puppet.
Adding personalized facts to Facter
Every so often you wish to be able to write down conditional expressions according to site-specific knowledge that just isn’t presented through Facter, or perhaps you’d like to include it inside of a template.
Since you can’t include arbitrary Ruby code in the manifests, the most advantageous remedy is to increase a new fact to Facter. These other facts can then be distributed to Puppet clients and are presented for use in manifests and templates, just like any other fact would be.
Note: Facter 3.0 removed the Ruby implementations of some amenities and replaced them using a tailor made facts API. Any tailor made fact that requires a particular in the Ruby information previously stored in lib/facter/util will fail using an error. For increased specifics, see the Facter 3.0 release notes .
The concept
You'll insert new facts by producing snippets of Ruby code over the Puppet master. Puppet then employs Plugins in Modules to distribute the facts to the client.
Loading customized facts
Facter features a small number of methods of loading facts:
$LOAD\_PATH. or the Ruby library load path
The --custom-dir command line option.
The environment variable ‘FACTERLIB’
You can easlily use these methods of loading facts to do things like take a look at data files locally before distributing them, otherwise you can arrange to have a targeted list of facts in existence on certain machines.
Working with the Ruby load path
Facter searches all directories while in the Ruby $LOAD_PATH variable for subdirectories named ‘facter’, and loads all Ruby documents in those directories. As soon as you had some directory on your $LOAD_PATH like
/lib/ruby. setup like this:
Facter would try to load ‘facter/system_load.rb’, ‘facter/users.rb’, and ‘facter/rackspace.rb’.
Working with the --custom-dir command line option
Facter can take various --custom-dir selections relating to the command line that specifies an individual directory to search for custom made facts. Facter attempts to load all Ruby information inside specified directories. This helps you to definitely do something like this:
Utilising the FACTERLIB environment variable
Facter also checks the environment variable FACTERLIB for a delimited (semicolon for Windows and colon for all other platforms) list of directories, and tries to load all Ruby documents in those directories. This allows for you to definitely do something like this:
Note: Changes in built-in pluginsync assist in Facter 3
Facter two.four deprecated Facter’s help for loading facts by means of Puppet’s pluginsync (the -p option), and Facter 3.0.0 removed the -p option. However, we reversed this decision in Facter 3.0.two and re-enabled the -p option. For details about existing and long term guidance for this option, see the Facter 3.0.two release notes .
Two parts of every fact
Setting aside external facts for now, most facts have at least two things:
A call to Facter.incorporate('fact_name'). which determines the name within the fact
A setcode statement for basic resolutions, which is evaluated to determine the fact’s value.
Facts can get a lot considerably more complicated than that, but those two together are probably the most basic implementation of the customized fact.
Executing shell commands in facts
Puppet gets data about a process from Facter, along with the most frequent way for Facter to get that particulars is by executing shell commands. You'll be able to then parse and manipulate the output from those commands by means of standard Ruby code. The Facter API gives you a small number of ways to execute shell commands:
If all you need to do is run the command and make use of the output, verbatim, as your fact’s value, you can easlily pass the command into setcode directly. For example: setcode 'uname --hardware-platform'
If your fact is extra complicated than that, you’re able to call Facter::Core::Execution.exec('uname --hardware-platform') from in just the setcode do … stop block. As always, whatever the setcode statement returns is chosen as being the fact’s value.
In any case, remember that your shell command can be a Ruby string, so you’ll desire to escape special characters if you decide to have to pass them through.
It is important to note that not everything that functions on the terminal will function in a very fact . You can still make use of the pipe ( | ) and similar operators as you normally would, but Bash-specific syntax like if statements will not perform. The most popular way to handle this limitation is to put in writing your conditional logic in Ruby.
Example
Let’s say you would like to get the output of uname --hardware-platform to solitary out a precise type of workstation. To do this, you would construct a new customized fact. Launch by giving the fact a name, with this case, hardware_platform. and design your new fact in the file, hardware_platform.rb. relating to the Puppet master server:
You can easlily then utilize the instructions from the Plugins in Modules site to copy the new fact to some module and distribute it. During your next Puppet run, the value for the new fact will be for sale to work with in your own manifests and templates.
Working with other facts
You'll be able to craft a fact that utilizes other facts by accessing Facter.value(:somefact). If the fact fails to resolve or is just not existing, Facter returns nil .
Configuring facts
Facts have several properties that you simply can use to customize how facts are evaluated.
Confining facts
Just one on the even more commonly implemented properties is the confine statement, which restricts the fact to only run on programs that matches another given fact.
An example of your confine statement would be something like the following:
This fact takes advantage of sysfs on linux to get a list with the power states that are for sale over the given program. Since this is only on the market on Linux devices, we utilize the confine statement to ensure that this fact isn’t needlessly run on units that do not guidance this type of enumeration.
Fact precedence
Just one fact can have a wide range of resolutions . just about every of which is truly a different way of ascertaining what the value from the fact should be. It is very standard to have different resolutions for different operating units, for example. It is rather simple to confuse facts and resolutions due to the fact they are superficially identical - to increase a new resolution to some fact, you simply increase the fact again, only having a different setcode statement.
When a fact has much more than a particular resolution, the primary resolution that returns a value other than nil will established the fact’s value. The way that Facter decides the issue of resolution precedence is the weight property. Once Facter rules out any resolutions that are excluded considering that of confine statements, the resolution with the highest weight is evaluated to begin with. If that resolution returns nil. Facter moves on to the next resolution (by descending weight) until it gets a value for your fact.
By default, the weight of the fact is the selection of confines for that resolution, so that considerably more precise resolutions takes priority over less exact resolutions.
Execution timeouts
Facter two.x supported a :timeout option to Facter#add. Facter no longer supports this option, and produces a warning if it is utilized.
Although this version of Facter does not assistance overall timeouts on resolutions, you may pass a timeout to Facter::Core::Execution#execute :
Structured facts
Even as the norm is for a fact to return only one string, Facter two.0 introduced structured facts . which take the type of either a hash or an array. All you may need to do to make a structured fact is return a hash or an array from the setcode statement. One can see some relevant examples inside crafting structured facts section within the Fact Overview .
Aggregate resolutions
If your fact brings together the output of numerous commands, it may make feeling to employ aggregate resolutions . An aggregate resolution is split into “chunks”, every a person responsible for resolving a single piece in the fact. After all in the chunks have been resolved separately, they’re combined into one flat or structured fact and returned.
Aggregate resolutions have several key differences compared to very easy resolutions, beginning with the fact declaration. To introduce an aggregate resolution, you’ll really need to insert the :type =&gt; :aggregate parameter:
Each individual step inside the resolution then gets its individual named chunk statement:
In the painless resolution, the code always contains a setcode statement that determines the fact’s value. Aggregate resolutions never have a setcode statement. Instead, they have an optional aggregate block that brings together the chunks. Whatever value the aggregate block returns will be the fact’s value. Here’s an example that just brings together the strings from the two chunks over:
If the chunk blocks either all return arrays or all return hashes, one can omit the aggregate block. In the event you do, Facter quickly merges all of your knowledge into an individual array or hash and use that as being the fact’s value.
For a little more examples of aggregate resolutions, see the aggregate resolutions section on the Fact Overview web page.
Viewing fact values
If your Puppet master(s) are configured to utilize PuppetDB. you’re able to watch and search all from the facts for any node, which includes personalized facts. See the PuppetDB docs for alot more info.
External facts
What are external facts?
External facts supply a way to make use of arbitrary executables or scripts as facts, or established facts statically with structured facts. If you’ve ever wanted to put in writing a custom made fact in Perl, C, or a one-line textual content file, this is how.
Fact locations
The finest way to distribute external facts is with pluginsync, which included assist for them in Puppet 3.four /Facter two.0.1. To include external facts to your Puppet modules, just spot them in &lt;MODULEPATH&gt;/&lt;MODULE&gt;/facts.d/ .
If you’re not by using pluginsync, then external facts must go inside of a standard directory. The location of this directory varies determined by your operating structure, whether your deployment employs Puppet Business or open source releases, and whether you're functioning as root/Administrator. When calling facter from the command line, you can easlily specify the external facts directory with the --external-dir option.
Note: These directories really do not necessarily exist by default; you may have to generate them. Should you develop the directory, make sure to restrict entry so that only Administrators can craft to the directory.
In a very module (recommended):
On Unix/Linux/OS X, there are three directories:
On Windows 2003:
When operating as a non-root / non-Administrator person:
Executable facts - Unix
Executable facts on Unix function by dropping an executable file into the standard external fact path higher than. A shebang is always required for executable facts on Unix. If the shebang is missing, the execution within the fact will fail.
An example external fact written in Python:
You must ensure that the script has its execute bit established:
For Facter to parse the output, the script must return key/value pairs on STDOUT while in the format:
By making use of this format, only one script can return many different facts.
Executable facts - Windows
Executable facts on Windows operate by dropping an executable file into the external fact path to your version of Windows. Unlike with Unix, the external facts interface expects Windows scripts to stop accompanied by a known extension. Line endings is often either LF or CRLF. On the moment the following extensions are supported:
.com and .exe. binary executables
.bat and .cmd. batch scripts
.ps1. PowerShell scripts
As with Unix facts, every script must return key/value pairs on STDOUT inside of the format:
Implementing this format, just one script can return many different facts in a single return.
Batch scripts
The file encoding for .bat/.cmd documents must be ANSI or UTF8 without BOM (Byte Order Mark), otherwise you may get strange output.
Listed here is often a sample batch script which outputs facts employing the required format:
PowerShell scripts
The encoding that should be made use of with .ps1 information is pretty open. PowerShell determines the encoding from the file at run time.
Listed here is a really sample PowerShell script which outputs facts choosing the required format:
You should be able to save and execute this PowerShell script to the command line.
Structured info facts
Facter can parse structured facts data files stored during the external facts directory and established facts depending on their contents.
Structured info information must use a single with the supported information sorts and must have the correct file extension. On the moment, Facter supports the following extensions and facts forms:
yaml. YAML info, on the following format:
json. JSON information, from the following format:
txt. Key value pairs, on the following format:
As with executable facts, structured facts information can established a wide range of facts at once.
Structured info facts on Windows
All in the over sorts are supported on Windows with the following caveats:
The line endings will be either LF or CRLF .
The file encoding must be either ANSI or UTF8 without BOM (Byte Order Mark).
Troubleshooting
If your external fact isn't appearing in Facter’s output, jogging Facter in debug mode should give you a meaningful reason and tell you which file is causing the problem:
One particular example of when this may possibly happen is in cases where a fact returns invalid characters. Let say you utilized a hyphen instead of an equals sign in your own script take a look at.sh :
Working puppet facts --debug should yield a useful message:
External facts and stdlib
If you decide to choose that an external fact does not match what you have configured within your facts.d directory, make sure you haven't defined the same fact choosing the external facts abilities found from the stdlib module.
Downsides
Despite the fact that external facts supply a mostly-equal way to develop variables for Puppet, they have two or three disadvantages:
An external fact cannot internally reference another fact. However, due to parse order, it is easy to reference an external fact from the Ruby fact.
External executable facts are forked instead of executed inside the same operation.
Distributing executable facts through pluginsync requires Puppet 3.four.0 or greater.
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